The assembly processes in the electronics sector
There are many assembly processes in the electronics sector and most of them can be defined as “special”: this means that these processes cannot be evaluated through a simple visual verification but must be carried out according to validated procedures that guarantee their correct execution and therefore an excellent final result.
Industry standards and guidelines
The basic guidelines for carrying out the processes are provided by the international reference standards for assembly in electronics. These are technical publications that industry associations such as the IPC (Association Connecting Electronic Industries) draw up based on the experience and study of the various technical committees. These guides are translated into various languages and made available to specialists and various accredited companies also offer specific training aimed at studying and practicing these standards. The IPC Standards are aimed primarily at the industrial world – although there are addenda for more specific sectors such as, for example, aerospace – and deal with all aspects of the process. It starts with cornerstones such as J-STD-001 and IPC-A-610 which respectively define general guidelines for
production and criteria for visual checks, and can continue with countless monographs on basic materials such as PCBs ( IPC-A-600, IPC-1601) or on specific processes such as rework (IPC 7711/7721), reconditioning operations of moisture sensitive components (J-STD-033) and so on.
Other special standards are used to define protocols for specific sectors such as the ECSS regulations recognized by ESA, the European Space Agency, for the assembly of products intended for the aerospace world. Some of our operators are certified, for example, on the ECSS-Q-ST-70-08 and ECSS-Q-ST-70-38 standards which respectively regulate the assembly in the space environment of the THT, SMD and mixed components.
Planning of work processes
The essential knowledge of the standards must be combined with an in-depth construction of one’s own production process because, depending on the machinery available in the company and therefore on the technologies used, it is crucial to know how to select raw materials that are suitable and compatible with each other and to perfectly know them and keep in the ideal state both during storage and use. The knowledge of the performance of its processes and materials also makes it possible to prepare the most suitable equipment for processing and to plan checks in the various phases in order to achieve excellent results in terms of quality and efficiency.
SMT technology (Surface Mount Technology) concerns the assembly and soldering of all the components that are placed on the surface of the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) without crossing it from one side to the other.
THT technology (Trough Hole Technology) concerns the assembly and soldering of all the components that are connected to the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) crossing it from one side to the other through metallized holes.
SMD AND THT MANUAL SOLDERING
In some cases the assembly of the components cannot be carried out with automatic machines, and therefore the positioning and soldering must be carried out manually by means of table-top soldering stations.
Some sectors require washing of the electronic boards after the soldering processes. The reasons can be many:
Our company has a complete internal testing department with test benches and working stations for mechanical assembly that allow it to operate on all those products which, in addition to pure and simple assembly…
CONFORMAL COATING AND POTTING
For all products that need to be protected by coating or potting, we are equipped in a specific area of the company…